《酪乳和磷虾油中的磷脂可以改善老年大鼠海马区的胰岛素抵抗和突触信号》Tomé-Carneiro J, Carmen Crespo M et al.Molecular Neurobiology,3 February 2018 |中冠生物科技(珲春)有限公司 

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《酪乳和磷虾油中的磷脂可以改善老年大鼠海马区的胰岛素抵抗和突触信号》

Tomé-Carneiro J, Carmen Crespo M et al.Molecular Neurobiology,3 February 2018

摘要:
随着年龄的增长,葡萄糖代谢的受损程度和线粒体的衰退程度会越来越严重,同时伴随着认知能力会明显下降。没有有效的药物或者饮食可以改变这种情况,但适当的饮食和生活方式会推迟神经退行性疾病的发生,并且科学家们正在研究一些有效的营养素。在这篇文章里,我们研究了胰岛素信号、线粒体活性和它们的发生机制;同时对老龄大鼠分别喂食含有活性磷脂的浓缩磷虾油、酪乳脂肪球膜和两者的组合物,考察了海马和皮质中的突触信号传导情况。给老龄大鼠喂食3个月后,尽管所有动物组都显示出明显的外周胰岛素抵抗,但组合物组能够改善外周胰岛素敏感性。我们还研究了脑能量平衡。有趣的是,补充酪乳脂肪球膜组和组合物组,细胞内ATP水平增加,而大脑皮层中无明显变化。此外,我们发现在喂食酪乳脂肪球膜和磷虾油后,大鼠海马体中的脑源性神经营养因子水平明显增加。总之,膳食补充浓缩磷虾油和/或酪乳脂肪球膜可以改善外周和中枢胰岛素抵抗,预示着服用它们后可以延迟这些现象的发生。此外,摄入磷脂形式的n-3脂肪酸会增加脑源性神经营养因子水平,有利于神经元内能量状态的改善,并促进线粒体和蛋白质合成,这对神经突触的可塑性是十分必要的。因此,膳食中补充n-3脂肪酸可以保护树突内的局部蛋白质合成和能量平衡,有利于神经元健康并延迟由于年龄导致的无法修复的认知衰退。

Abstract
Impaired glucose metabolism and mitochondrial decay greatly increase with age, when cognitive decline becomes rampant. No pharmacological or dietary intervention has proven effective, but proper diet and lifestyle do postpone the onset of neurodegeneration and some nutrients are being investigated. We studied insulin signaling, mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, and synaptic signaling in the hippocampus and cortex following dietary supplementation with bioactive phospholipid concentrates of krill oil (KOC), buttermilk fat globule membranes (BMFC), and a combination of both in aged rats. After 3 months of supplementation, although all groups of animals showed clear signs of peripheral insulin resistance, the combination of KOC and BMFC was able to improve peripheral insulin sensitivity. We also explored brain energy balance. Interestingly, the hippocampus of supplemented rats-mainly when supplemented with BMFC or the combination of KOC and BMFC-showed an increase in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, whereas no difference was observed in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we found a significant increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of BMFC+KO animals. In summary, dietary supplementation with KOC and/or BMFC improves peripheral and central insulin resistance, suggesting that their administration could delay the onset of these phenomena. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ingested as phospholipids increase BDNF levels favoring an improvement in energy state within neurons and facilitating both mitochondrial and protein synthesis, which are necessary for synaptic plasticity. Thus, dietary supplementation with n-3 FAs could protect local protein synthesis and energy balance within dendrites, favoring neuronal health and delaying cognitive decline associated to age-related disrepair.